Step One A healthy balanced diet should be based on a variety of products, mainly of vegetable (not animal) origin. There is not a single product, which could provide our body with all the necessary nutrients. The exception is only human breast milk, which replaces all other baby products up to 6 months. Therefore, scientists insist that nutrition should be as diverse. Compliance with special diets can only on doctor’s advice.
Bread, products from cereals and pasta, potatoes should be eaten at every meal. More than half of the daily diet should be borne by those products. Scientists do not agree with the widely held opinion that these products are a good source of energy and carbohydrates. They contain many other substances necessary for health: dietary fiber, mineral compounds, vitamins B and C. It is a mistake, according to scientists, and claim that these products contribute to the deposition of fat. In fact, the energy content of the starch is much less than the same amount of fat or alcohol. It is recommended eating more bread, better black and wholemeal.
A variety of fruits and vegetables should be consumed several times per day in an amount of more than 400 grams, in addition to potatoes. Vegetable consumption exceeds the consumption of fruit. Vegetables and fruits are a source of antioxidants and folic acid, iron, vitamins, and minerals, which reduce the risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and other cardiovascular diseases. Preference should be given to vitamins and other nutrients from natural sources rather than from pills or dietary supplements.
Milk and dairy products low in fat and salt (yogurt, sour milk, and cheese) should be consumed daily. Especially in need of dairy products are children, adolescents, and women. If people do not consume dairy products, it should be included in the diet of other calcium-rich foods – fish (sardines, salmon), dark green leafy vegetables.
Meat and meat products are high in fat should be replaced by legumes, fish, poultry or lean meat. Portions of meat, fish or poultry should be small. The number of such meat products like sausage, sausages, pates, should be limited. Animal fat improves blood cholesterol levels and increases the risk of coronary heart disease. The report of the WHO expert on the problems of cancer, it is recommended to use no more than 80 grams of red meat per day.
The consumption of fat, including in products (meat, milk, et al.) must be 15 to 30% of daily caloric intake. Better to cook by boiling, baking, or use the microwave. In the process cooking, we should exclude adding fat. Special attention is being given to fatty acids, which are part of consumed us fat. They are: Saturated (NLC) – in butter, hard margarine Polyunsaturated (PUFA) – in vegetable oils, fish, and some soft margarine; Monounsaturated (MNZHK) – olive, canola, and peanut butter. The most useful MNZHK, especially olive oil. They exhibit antioxidant properties and protect against oxidation of blood cholesterol. The recommended intake of PUFA should be about 7% of the daily ration, MNZHK – 10-15%.
Preference should be given to a diet low in sugar – no more than 10% of the daily diet. Foods that contain a lot of sugar are a source of energy, but not a necessary component of a healthy diet. Sugar contributes to the development of caries. Scientists recommend drinking water instead of sugary drinks.
Total consumption of salt, including salt in bread, canned goods, etc., Should not exceed 6 grams (1 teaspoon) per day. It is recommended to use iodized salt. Excessive salt intake is associated with high blood pressure. Canned, salted, smoked foods are not recommended to eat daily. Food should be moderately salt, and to improve the taste add herbs and spices. Iodine deficiency is a common pathology, especially among children and women. Iodized salt will ensure the prevention of diseases caused by iodine deficiency.
Ideal body weight should match the recommended boundaries (body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9). It should maintain a moderate level of physical activity. Index of normal body weight, or Quetelet index (IR) can be determined by the formula: IR = weight (kg) / height (m) 2. Suppose you have a weight – 80 kg, height – 1,65 m. We raise growth in the square – 1,652 obtain 2.7225. Now the weight of 80 kg divided by 2.7225, the result – 29.38. The index of 25 to 29 is evidence of excess weight – your case. A greater than 30 indicates obesity. The higher the index, the more overweight you are. Excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal area is a greater risk to health than its excessive accumulation in the hips, as associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and early development of coronary heart disease.
If you want to lose weight, do so slowly, changing diet and increasing physical activity. Safe weight loss is 500-800 grams per week. Do not stick to diets with a sharp restriction of foods such as vegetables, fruit, bread, and potatoes.
Alcohol consumption should be no more than 2 servings per day (one serving – 10 grams of pure alcohol). With daily use of alcohol should refrain from taking it for at least one day a week. Side effects caused by alcohol consumption are related to its effect on the brain, liver, cardiac muscle, intestine, pancreas, nervous system. Alcohol dependence leads to a deficiency of vitamins and minerals.